REARING CALVES ON CREAM SEPARATOR SKIM-MILK
BY DR. CHARLES WILLIAM BURKETT Editor "American Agriculturist"
IKE other things in farm practice, there is a right way and a wrong way of rearing calves. At the Kansas Experiment Station three lots of ten calves each were fed on skim-milk, on whole milk, and nursed by the dam. These calves were fed I 54 days from birth and the cost of making IOO pounds of gain in growth or weight was ascertained. The calves fed on whole milk made I oo pounds of gain, a t a cost of $7.06; those allowed to run with their mothers, I oo pounds gain, a t $4.41 ; and those fed on skim-milk and grain, a t $2.26. When the steer calves in these three lots were later put in the feed lot and fed for a seven-month period, the best gains were made by the skim-milk lot, followed by the whole milk lot, while the lot allowed to run with the dams stood last. The skim-milk steers made a daily gain of 2. I pounds, the whole milk z pounds, and those running on their dams I .g pounds. The grain required in connection with the milk ration was 439 pounds per IOO pounds of gain in the skim-milk lot, 470 pounds in the whole milk lot, and 475
pounds in the lot nursing their dams. Not only did the skim-milk lot make the best but the most economical gains also.
Right, Economical Ration is Skim-Milk and Grain or Meal
Comment on these facts is unnecessarv. A carefullv conducted ex~eriment co;ering the milklusing period of not on1y one calf but of many, shows conclusively that the right way and the economical way of rearing a calf is in the use of skim. milk properly supplemented with grain feed. . Notonlyisthefeedingofwholemilkin pails or on dams a wasteful practice and uneconomical when com~ared with skimmilk and grains during 'the milk-feeding
period, but what is still more important, calves after weaning make better growth and cheaper gains when they have been fed on skim-milk rather than on whole milk or nursed on the dams. With these facts clearly demonstrated, calf rearing in the future should be based on skimmilk feeding.
Rich Whole Milk Not an Ideal Calf Food
Are these results contrary to nature? Not a t all. In a wild state cows gave . milk very low in butter-fat. What was ' - yanted primarily was casein and albumen -for tissue growth of organs and muscles, %mineralmatter for bone, water to appease +-.%hirst . and to circulate the body fluids, -:+with just enough fat for body heat and . .energy until the calf could obtain these .heat and fat-forming materials from the herbage of the pasturing grounds. The high fat quality of milk, therefore, is not a natural condition but an artificial 'production. Man has bred that character intomilk through the many ages that the cow has been a domesticated animal in iorder n o t t o feed calves better, but to - get more butter to :spread on his bread.
A calf consequently finds whole milk a rich
food and often as undesirable as does the human infant when supported on such rich milk. Modifying cow's milk by diluting with skim-milk or water for infant feeding is the same thing in effect as feeding calves skim-milk balanced up with grain concentrates.
What Grain to Combine with Skim-Milk
The Iowa Station one year fed Holstein and Shorthorn calves weighing from I 80 to 200 pounds for a period of between two and three months skim-milk fresh from the farm separator. Each calf had a daily average allowance of I 5.4 pounds, or practically eight quarts of skim-milk, 2.9 pounds of hay, and either I .2 pounds of linseed meal or I . 5 pounds of ground oats, or I .3 pounds of corn meal and o. I pound of flaxseed. The oil meal lot made an average daily gain of I . 5 pounds at a cost of 2.8 cents, the crushed oats lot an average daily gain of I .6 pounds a t a cost of 2. I cents a pound, and the corn mealflaxseed lot an average daily gain of I .7 pounds at a cost of 2.2 cents a pound. These figures in contrast with the cost of 7. I cents a pound of gain when fed whole milk a t the Kansas Station show the immense practical saving of using either oil meal or crushed oats or corn
meal as a substitute for the butter-fat of whole milk.
-.!:~he Nebraska Station has used linseed meal, germ oil meal, corn meal, shelled corn and oats and bran with skim-milk and in all instances found the combination equal to whole milk. In fact, "when these calves were a year old, the whole milk calves could not be distinguished from those fed on skimmilk, and the profits were very much larger on the latter ** than on the former. In the Nebraska trial all the calves were taken from their mothers at the end of
three days and fed whole milk for two weeks, after which the change to skimmilk was made. During the first week on skim-milk the whole milk calves appeared to be in the lead, "but the skim-milk calves soon equalled them in growth."
Another advantage often observed in skim-milk fed calves is to be found in the large stomach girth. This is not objectionable at all in young beef stock and is a decided advantage in dairy animals. The dairy cow must have The place to begin a large stomach is with the calf; and though gain in weight and cost of gain are ignored in developing a calf, skim-milk is preferable, if for no
other reason than that i t starts the dairy animal forward with a large and thoroughly healthy stomach machine for utilizing feed.
Of Course Whole Milk at First
Every calf requires its mother's milk for two or three days. That first milk, or colostrum, is required by the calf, since this milk has the property of acting as a mild laxative and has a stimulating effect upon the digestive organs. This first milk is also very digestible. As to the method of feeding calves, dairymen differ. Some prefer to take calves away from their mothers without allowing them to nurse. Others let them nurse twice, and still others allow the calves to run with the dams three to five days, or until the fever of the udder has disappeared and the milk is fit for use in the dairy.
Ration for First Ten Days or Two Weeks
The chief reason for removing a calf from its mother when still v e r y young, lies in the fact that the younger the calf,
the easier i t is to teach i t to drink. Give the calf plenty of nourishment for two days for strength-giving effects, and after this let it go hungry for I 2 hours before attempting to give i t the first lessons a t the pail. During the first two weeks give the calf whole milk; during the first week feed three times daily; thereafter two daily feeds will do. If the calf is a Jersey or Guernsey, ten pounds of whole milk may be fed daily, in three feeds; this should be four pounds in the morning, two a t noon and four again a t night. If the milk is very rich, better remove some of the fat or dilute with water, but still keep the total daily supply within ten pounds. The milk from the other dairy breeds, beef and common cattle, does not require any mixing with water. Calves from these classes, being of larger size, should be fed 10to I 2 pounds of milk; but even the largest calf should not be allowed to take more during the first two weeks. The amount of milk may be increased as the calf grows but a t no time should more than I 6 to 20 pounds be fed. Inferior calves may be caused by overfeeding as well as by 'underfeeding. In fact, more calves are ruined by overfeeding than by underfeeding.. They should receive just enough to keep them thrifty and constantly growing.
Feeding After Two Weeks Old
4" . .
When calves are two weeks old the change from whole to skim-milk is started. By substituting a pound of skim-milk for a pound of whole milk each day, the substitution will be complete in from 1 0 to I 2 days, depending on the quantity of whole milk heretofore fed. From the beginning of the third week give each calf 1 0 to 1 2 pounds of skim -milk daily in two feeds, depending upon its size and appetite. In the fourth week increase t h e skim-milkone pound, in the fifth week another pound, and so continue increasing by a pound a week until the calf is consuming from 18 to
thrive best and make the most rapid gains when raised on separator skim-milk with a proper grain -. ration.
-- '' \ ' .
breeds should be fed I o to I 2 lbs. but no more. .
4.-After ten days or two weeks, substitute skim-milk and grain ration gradually, feeding twice a day. See details in first part of booklet The grain is fed in place of butter-fat in whole milk a t a great saving in cost. * ,
F,:k. -. .
-::caused by unclean pails. . ' - .Never feed in a trough.
6.-Serious scouring of calves may be checked by sdding one teaspoonful of dried blood to milk ration. Sometimes a larger quantity of wheat flour in the milk is effective.
7.--Calves should always be able to get good, clean drinking water and salt whenever wanted.
8.-Don't overfeed. More calves are ruined by overfeeding than underfeeding. Feed just the right quantity.
9.-Provide pasture in summer if possible. If pasture is not available give something green-oats preferably. Give them no more than they will clean up before the next feeding. 1 0 . 1 t is essential to have clean, airy box stalls during summer-screened if possible so that calves will not have to use feed and energy to fight flies. Provide warm, cornfortable quarters in winter.
pounds a day. Do not feed aboZe. . . . . '. . this amount. : Now forw'the grain. Teach the calf to eat a little grain in its second or third week. I t can be started by rubbing a little dry meal over the end of its nose. Corn meal or chopped or crushed oats or oil meal is excellent for this purpose. A grain mixture consisting of ground' oats, three-parts; corn meal, three parts ; linseed meal, one part; and wheat bran, one part, is very appetizing to a calf and in connection with skim-milk gives steady growth and fine thrift. You start by giving an ounce or two to the four-week-old calf and gradually increase until two pounds are daily fed the pasture-raised calf a t six months of age. This same mixture may be used right on after milk has been discontinued when the calf is five or six months old. On pasture give three pounds daily to yearlings and four pounds daily to calves 18 months old. In winter to calves between six and nine months old feed three pounds daily; to those between nine and twelve months three and a half pounds daily. Yearlings should have four pounds daily and those 18 months old six pounds.
Importance of Clean Feeding Utensils
Milk should always be fed warm, at a of go to loo degrees, and
should be clean and sweet. Next to overfeeding, the chief trouble lies in the unsanitary condition of the pails and troughs in which calves are fed. Pails and other vessels in which milk is kept should be clean, and unless these are clean and sanitary, ferments develop which cause an endless amount of trouble with calves. When calves begin to pur e, one of the first remedies is to scour t e feeding pail.
Any contrivance w h i c h c a n n o t be thoroughly cleaned is not fit to use in feeding calves. If a patent feeder is used, the tube should be sterilized each day. Since this is quite
impractical i t is therefore preferable to use the common metal pail. Troughs should never be used for feeding calves. While i t is easy to keep a metal trough clean, if more than one calf is kept in a paddock, invariably one gets more than its share.
If serious 'scouring takes place ir,
young calves, the trouble may be checked by adding one teaspoonful of dried blood to the milk ration. In serious cases of scours, the addition of one or two eggs with dried blood is quite successful. Another often used remedy is putting common wheat flour in the milk. From two to five tablespoonfuls may be used a t each feeding until the disorder is checked. Another remedy is to add one to two ounces of castor oil to the milk in the morning, followed by a dose of I 5 to 20
drops of laudanum in the evening. This may be given in addition to the dried blood or wheat flour. A most essential thing in raising good calves is clean, airy box stalls during summer. I t is well, also, to screen these rather than to let the calves fight flies. This provision of comfort saves feed and energy. The calves should have access to good drinking water, or should be watered a t least once a day and should also have access to salt a t will.
give something green-oats preferably. Calves should have no more than they will eat up clean before the next feeding. In winter, calves need warm, comfortable I-- quarters, with floors properly bedded p4, and well drained. Cement floors are objectionable; wood, or a paved floor of _ wood or cork. is
Care Summer and Winter. . ..:. - , .. --Provide. .2pbii:Gre ,Sbk-~kl'if all possible. If pasture is not available
thrifty, constantly-growing calf is necessary for the development of a sturdy, strong and large-producing cow.
Butter-Fat Not Required by Calves All these things prove that the butterfat of whole milk is not necessary for rearing calves. Milk as originally secreted was largely lacking in fat as heretofore discussed; furthermore, the fat of milk is very nearly like the fat in corn or oil meal or oats. From a nutritive standpoint, cream has little value in proportion to price. Jersey and Guernsey calves do not thrive well when nursing on mothers that give rich milk. As -has been shown, skim-milk with corn meal is a better food. Neither is fat the most valuable part of milk, and as near as we can understand, is not assimilated by the system in large quantities. Even steers when fed too much fat or oil in their grain are subject to digestive disorders. The presence of a limited amount of fat tends to help digest the protein, but feeds other than milk can be substituted, and the fat of corn, the oil meals, a n d other concentrates is just as wholesome and effective as costly butter-fat. These conclusions have been reached austive tests and the experience of many successful dairy farmers.
Who Should Raise Calves
Every cow owner should raise his own calves, because that is the most practicable and economical means of replacing a herd. The present need is not more cows so much as better cows. The betterment of our dairy cows offers the greatest field for profit. The average production per cow is too low in the United States, as will be seen by the average production per cow in the following countries: Netherlands, 7000 lbs. of milk per year; Switzerland, 6000 l b ~;.Denmark, 5666 lbs. ; United States, 3:.671 lbs, . .. .
.-time to care for a cow which produces 7000 lbs. than one which produces only half this amount. .She requires no extra c ,.- ''.expense of any kind except more and bet\2 -
;.-@+,It . requires
ter feeding, but not much more than the low producer. The only way to get good cows is to raise them. No man will knowingly part with his good producers except at a handsome profit. The economical, practical way of improving our dairy cows is to breed them to good purebred bulls, then save the best
calves from the best cows and raise them on se~aratedskim-milk. In this wav betteI cows will gradually be develope& a t small expense, and dairying will be made correspondingly more profitable.
Hand Separator Lessens Cost of Rearing Calves
The introduction of the hand cream
ing calves. You see, the old-fashioned setting systems brought the feeding of skim-milk to calves into disrepute. The creamery system in which the milk is hauled to the creamery and separated there, then returned, and probably not fed until the evening of its return, was even worse making i t practically impossible to raise good calves. If in the olden days feeding skim-milk to calves brought poor results, it was not because of the inferiority of the feed, but because the system was wrong Warm skim-milk right from a clean hand separator makes it possible to rear calves succ&sfully and a great deal more economically than by allowing them to nurse on the dam. The hand separator has not only revolutionized the butter industry, but has been equally important in making it possible to raise the best calves. Cream separators make not only better and chea~er butter but also better and chea~er calves. And the only way to build up a profitable dairy herd economically, is to raise that herd from the best calves born in it. This applies not only to dairy stock but also to beef animals.
. -\ .
You Should Use a
GREATER CAPACITY: Capacities have been increased without increase of speed or effort required to operate. SKIMS CLOSER: Imp r o v e d bowl design gives greater skimming efficiency EASIER 'TO WASH: Simple bowl construction makes the bowl easier to wash. EASIER T O T U R N : The low speed of the DeLaval bowl, the short crank, its unusually large capacity for the size and weight of bowl, and its automatic oiling throughout, make it the easiest to turn and least tiring to the operator. THE MAJORITY CHOICE: Over 2,500,000 De Lavals are in daily use-thousands of them for I 5 or 20 years. TIME TESTED: The De Laval was the first cream separator. I t has stood the test of time and maintained its original success and leadership for over forty the world over. SERVICE WHEN YOU NEED IT : The worldwide De Laval organization, with agents and representatives to serve users in almost every locality where cows are milked, insures the buygr of a De Layal quick and efficientservice.
The De Laval Separator Company
New York Chicago San Francisco Montreal Peterborough Winnipeg Edmonton Vancouver
Seven Good Reasons Why
*The F etter Way of Milking
M bA.dthan forty years ago De Laval gave the WAY SEPARATING world THEBETTER
CREAM. NOWthe De Laval Milker gives the BETTER OF MILKING WAY COWS. world THE
The De Laval Milker is the only mechanical milker which milks cows with absolute uniformity from minute to minute, or from year to year, regardless of whether one or a dozen units are used. I t milks the way cows like best and never changes. I t can't get tired. I t can't become cross or irritable. I t can't get out of adjustment. This is the reason cows usually give more milk when milked the De Laval way. I t is "The Better Way of Milking" in every respect; better, faster, cheaper, cleaner than any other way of milking-and is proving so on thousands of farms.
dcrial No. 1009 22
BEFORE YOU BUY A
SEE AND, TRY A
ABERDEEN CREAMERY CO., ABERDEEN, MISS.
Click tabs to swap between content that is broken into logical sections.
Copyright protected by Mississippi State University Libraries. Use of materials from this collection beyond the exceptions provided for in the Fair Use and Educational Use clauses of the U.S. Copyright Law may violate federal law. Permission to publish or reproduce is required.